Translation: From Chinese to English
Note: Another piece of education thesis translation for one my professors. Here for archiving only.
Discussion on the Teaching Reform of Printing Principles and Process
By combing the characteristics of printing specialty, several suggestions on the teaching reform of printing principles and process are put forward: changing the teaching concepts, renovating the teaching content, improving classroom teaching and reforming practice teaching. These teaching reforms and practice will play a certain role in promoting the development of printing specialty.
Printing Principle and Process, Teaching Mode, Teaching Reform
With the rapid development of information science and technology, a series of reforms and developments are occurring in the printing industry. “Informatization, datamation, networking and digitalization” have become the topics of the current development of printing industry, which accordingly bring about higher and newer demands to printing professionals. The higher-speed informatization, digitalization and networking of the printing specialty can only be promoted by training highly qualified printing professionals. Therefore, it has become an urgent subject for high schools to cultivate high-qualified and well-skilled talents. The feature of higher education is to cultivate innovative, professional and skilled application-oriented high-level talents. Whereas printing principle and process is a core professional course of the printing specialty. Its current teaching content, course construction targets and guiding teaching ideology have been outdated due to the rapid development of new materials, new equipments and new techniques, along with other related industries. Hence it is necessary to carry on the reform.
1 Changing the Teaching ConceptConcept is the forerunner of behavior. The teaching concept is an important logical starting point of talent cultivation concept; it plays a key role in course teaching. To fully arouse and exert students’ learning initiative is the critical factor to the realization of school teaching targets.
Modern education process is a collaborative activity between teachers and students. Students are a main part of teaching process. The activity between students and study materials in teaching process is interactive two-way process . Besides, the role of teachers is mainly reflected in the selecting and integrating of study materials, as well as the efficient coordination on this interactive process. Teachers should consistently implement the education concept throughout every specific process, which is “The Inspiring Guidance of Teachers, The Substantial Participation of Student and The Equal Interaction between Teacher and Student”, as well as transform the existing “Whole Process Teaching” education mode into “Whole Process Guiding” so as to fully mobilize students’ learning enthusiasm and exert their intelligence. Students’ learning ability, practice ability and innovation ability will improve gradually.
2 Renovating the Teaching ContentThe renovation of teaching content is the core of curriculum construction and reform. The reform of teaching content should be closely surrounding the education and teaching idea of cultivating highly professional and well skilled advanced application-oriented talents , with the principle line of practical skill training, strengthening the training of students’ skills, and improving basic theoretical knowledge by the rule of “Necessary and Sufficient”. With development of science and technology, the emergence of new technology, printing equipments have become the integration of computer, electronics, automation, machinery, optical science and many other disciplines. It is necessary to let students start to contact and learn the new high-tech of printing industry early, such as CTP technology, shaftless, digital printing and digitalized work flow. However the current situation is the existing textbooks are outdated, and the curriculum content only grows but not shrinks, which lead to practical key new content cannot to be added in, and the outdated useless traditional content cannot be dropped out. The contents students learning cannot meet the needs of their future profession. Students are already dropped behind in knowledge level before they graduate, and cannot meet the demands of talent markets and the needs of employers. In view of this, it is necessary to renovate the teaching content. For example, in teaching of the letterpress principle and process, emphasize on the emerging flexo printing technology by comparing the traditional letterpress technology; in teaching traditional simulative printing principle and process, we should detailedly and rightly explain the present booming digital printing technology, etc. This could introduce the new high-tech information to the classroom in time. Additionally, the most functional way to achieve it is to gather the latest industrial technology materials through multiple methods, then use them enrich the teaching content. Only in this way, the teaching content can rightly correspond to the “Advanced Talents with Rich Professional Qualities” teaching mode.
3 Improving the Classroom TeachingThe teaching method of printing specialty is basically cramming, lacks classroom communication. Students are over-relied on teachers in teaching habits, lacks independent learning initiative and ability, which makes them accustomed to passively accept knowledge infusion from teachers and obtain some boring theories that causing them lose interest in studying, then erode their learning enthusiasm and initiative. For this reason, in order to change the present classroom teaching situation of printing principle and process, apart from combining the demands of talent cultivation target, selecting teaching materials carefully, reforming and perfecting teaching contents, efforts must be concentrate on cultivating and arousing students’ subjective learning consciousness to mobilize their learning initiative and enthusiasm to foster advanced application-oriented talent.
3.1 The Teaching Reform of the Introduction ClassModern teaching theories promotes the teaching strategy of active learning , and advocate students to proceed “Knowledge Construction” and build “Circumstancing” and “cooperative” interaction environment, help them to acquire development in “Knowledge Construction”. Therefore, how to stimulate students’ learning interest is a meaningful question for every teacher. While teaching the introduction class, teachers must emphasize the application characteristic of the printing principle and process course. They should also arouse students’ subjective learning consciousness, and remind them that printing principles exist in every process of printing and printing process directly affects product quality through the complete introduction to the production process of a printing work (such as books, posters, newspapers, etc). So as to eliminate students’ strangeness to this course, improve their learning interest as well as build their learning confidence.
3.2 Teaching Reform through the CourseIn the teaching implementation process, teachers should fully use all available modern teaching tools and methods, multi-media courseware, teaching videos and flexible interactive software. They should personally compile multi-media courseware; collect relevant videos and films, as well as interactive teaching software to use in the classroom or for students’ after-class self-study; demonstrate the complex principles through vivid multi-media courseware, in which pictures and 3D animations should be strengthened to enhance students’ comprehension; use the network flexibly to offer students abundant learning resources, including courseware, electronic books and related links etc, meanwhile, answer students’ questions through network, which shortens the distance between teachers and students and increases the communication opportunities. Teachers should also provide students professional printing industry websites, printing journals, printing research institute, printing workshop, printing exhibitions information and etc, to help them obtain knowledge about printing from various kinds of ways and angels. So students can undertake personalized and independent study through network. “Four Combinations” should be implemented in teaching method.
- The combination of classroom teaching and after-class teaching. The classroom teaching targets all students and instructs the key points and difficulties of the curriculum and solves the confusion of theories. Short semester practice teaching emphasizes on students’ practical ability, specifically addressing the students’ poor practical ability, weak integration between theory and practice.
- The combination of teaching and discussing. Students should not just listen blindly in the classroom. Teachers should effectively motivate their enthusiasm; talk with them face-to-face; advocate the student-student discussion and student-teacher discussion, which target the confusingly and controversial issues, to instruct students to distinguish right from wrong, make clear the concepts and enhance understanding. This method in class could activate students’ thinking and exercise their ideation as well as expression.
- The combination of face-to-face teaching and self-study. In class, teachers should outline the difficulties and contents in brief; motivate their initiative; encourage students to self-study some course content and cultivate their problem finding, analyzing and solving ability in the mean time.
- The combination of “Going-out” and “Coming-in”. By use of the practice base of school, students can learn about the application of complex principles and processes in the production line, which is undoubtedly most intuitionistic and vivid. Let industry experts to illustrate a series of refining and summarized problems to students through featured report, which will definitely enhance students’ learning system and problem analyzing system.
3.3 The Reform of Assessment System The course evaluation is conducted through assignments and exams. In order to ensure students spend sufficient time in study, and change the practice that a test determines the final grade, students’ grade can be devided into three parts: regular score (20%) + in-class test score (30%) + final test score. Regular score account for about 20%, generally includes internship report, regular homework, classroom discussion, classroom question answer, and etc. In-class test score accounts for 30%. Tests are conducted after every course module, targeting the knowledge and content of the module. Final test score accounts for 50%. The test papers not only emphasize course highlights, but also covers corresponding knowledge. The variety of testing formats focuses on testing students’ comprehensive ability. The teaching content should involve some vocational qualification content, the kind of a means in the classroom can activate students’ thought, practice their thinking and express ability. Therefore, course deign process is necessary. The difficulty of course design topics should fit the students’ capability, allows them to accomplished through certain amount of efforts. Teachers should arrange course design topics, basic design information, result requirements and the like before lecures, and implement the course design through out the whole teaching process. Instructor should compile detailed course deign specification and instructions, by this process to make the students master the application of printing principles and techniques in the printing process. However, due to the limited class hours and teachers, this course hasn’t opened course design for the time being. To guarantee better teaching activities, the cousre design of teaching principles and process will be added in the next revision of the cultivation plan. The course designs prepare contents according to the knowledge students learn; give out the stimulation manuscripts of the curriculum design, put forward demands (the use of the printed, and its quality requirements, size, printing quantity, etc) in dulplicating printing work. Under the guidance of the outline, the students collect and look up revelant material; investigate the production field and complete printing process planning.
4 The Reform of Practical TeachingThe printing specialty particularly emphasize experience accumulation and practical operation. For example, strips of film, priting pressure adjustment, water ink balance and etc, these requires sufficient practical ability. The theoretial knowledge from class alone is far from enough. Therefore, it is necessary for understanding and mastering the exsited knowledge to set after-class internship, experiment and design, which in the mean time is the only scientific training method to acquire new knowledge, cultivate analyzing ability and problem-solving ability.
4.1 Experiment In order to cultivate students’ practice ability, and make them better understand the principles and process the teaching contents describes, the curriculum, according to teaching contents, should at leaset arrange comprehensive experiments like the influence of printing pressure to ink-transfer percentage and the ink-transfer. Nevertheless, because of the limitation of the experimental conditionas, currently only a few student can get down to doing, while others by watching. More experiment class arrangement can help to slovenia the problem.
The existing simulation printing software enables students to simulate exercise in the printing workshop, intuitively watch printing troubles, analyze and solve the component failure. If there is network version allowing more simulation practice, the effect can be increased significantly .
4.2 Curriculum DesignThe course design, as a practical teaching process of the curriculum, can largely enhance students’ independent working ability. It can not only deepen students’ understanding to classroom lecture contents but also exercise their ability in technical material enquiry and comprehensive application ability. Therefore, course deign process is necessary. The difficulty of course design topics should fit the students’ capability, allows them to accomplished through certain amount of efforts. Teachers should arrange course design topics, basic design information, result requirements and the like before lecures, and implement the course design through out the whole teaching process. Instructor should compile detailed course deign specification and instructions, by this process to make the students master the application of printing principles and techniques in the printing process. However, due to the limited class hours and teachers, this course hasn’t opened course design for the time being. To guarantee better teaching activities, the cousre design of teaching principles and process will be added in the next revision of the cultivation plan. The course designs prepare contents according to the knowledge students learn; give out the stimulation manuscripts of the curriculum design, put forward demands (the use of the printed, and its quality requirements, size, printing quantity, etc) in dulplicating printing work. Under the guidance of the outline, the students collect and look up revelant material; investigate the production field and complete printing process planning.
In order to conduct the cultivation with the combination of education and employment , while emphasizing the practice ability, it is helpful to build a long-term and stable practice base to reform the traditional sightseeing training mode, for students to acquire a first-hand experience and enhancement of practice ability, as well as to reduce the internship cost. A lot of printing colleges and enterprises are building off-campus training base by cooperation, which in one side enables enterprises to raise popularity and influence by supports of school, in the other side enables schools to utilize practice base as students’ production practice sites. Nevertheless, from now to see many practice bases are of mere formality. If the work of practice base is fully carried out and the students’ on post practice work is intensified, students would have opportunities to put the theoretical knowledge learned from school into the production process. Then the problems they encountered in professional theory study can be understanded and solved through practice, thereby cultivates them with strong practice ability. And the combination of theory and practice can be truly realized.
The teaching reform of printing principles and process course is the requirement of professional development, as well as the need of quality-oriented education.
In practical, the change of education concept enables the realization of the teaching reform of printing principles and process course; the improvement of classroom teaching can overcome the shortening of class hours; the reform of practice teaching can overcome the poor practice quality resulte from the shortage of internship funds. The reform of printing principles and process courses will certainly plays a positive role in promoting the development of printing
References: Xing YongFu, Modern Education Thought. [M]. Beijing: The Central Radio and Television University press, 2001. Wen PengNian, Jia GuoYing. Constructivism Theory and Teaching Reform Constructivism Learning TheoryReview [J]. Journal of Education Theory and Practice, 2002, 22 (5), 17-22.